Case number, IT/1-T. Decision title, Judgment. Decision date, 10 December Parties. The Prosecutor; Anto Furundžija. Categories, War crimes. Trial Chamber II found Furundžija guilty of torture and outrages upon personal The events giving rise to the case against Furundžija have occurred at the. Anto Furundzija (Trial Judgement) , available at: cases,ICTY, [accessed 27 December ].

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It found that there was a general trend in national legislation to broaden the definition of rape so that it now embraces acts which were previously classified as comparatively less serious offences, such as sexual or indecent assault. Whilst Anto Furundzija continued to interrogate his two victims, a soldier was beating the man on the toes with a truncheon.

Francisco Luis Gordillo Martinez At the beginning ofhe was deployed in Mukoloka, in Shabunda Territory South Kivu Cassto free the furundzijaa of the armed group Raiya Mutomboki.

Anto Furundzija

The caase in preventative detention was deducted from the prison sentence. The trial chamber first discussed the procedural history of the case and concluded that, under the Tadic testthere was a state of armed conflict between the relevant furundzina. The First Trial Chamber judged that the crime of torture gave rise to the application of the principle of universal jurisdiction and thereby constituted a crime which in international law, was probably imprescriptible.

Its establishment was also considered necessary for effective war crimes prosecution in Bosnia. Rape and other serious sexual assaults in international humanitarian law The chamber noted that rape in time of war is specifically prohibited by various treaties: The judgement is a document of approximately pages, which this press release does not summarise.

The latter was questioned in the nude in front of around forty soldiers with one of them threatening her with genital mutilation if she did not tell the truth.

The Tribunal however found that this did not affect the realiability of the testimony of the witness. In assesing the criminal responsibility of the accused for torture and the rapes, the tribunal found that the the accused was clearly responsible given his commanding role.

Instead of adopting this expansive definition, the trial chamber decided to look for a definition by turning to the principles of criminal law common to the major legal systems of the world. The accused furthermore stood by, failing to intervene in any way, while the witness was forced to have oral, anal and vaginal sexual intercourse with the other soldier. The Tribunal noted however there was a major discrepancy casf regard to the criminalisation of forced oral penetration.


Induring the Rwandan Genocide, Ngenzi was mayor of the Kabarondo dist The Tribunal also stressed that in international humanitarian law, depending on the specific circumstances of the case, torture may be prosecuted as a category of such broad international crimes as serious violations of humanitarian law, grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, crimes against humanity or genocide.

The primacy can be asserted in three cases: The accused, Mr Anto Furundzija was charged on 10 November with three individual counts of a torture and inhumane treatment; b torture; and c outrages upon personal dignity including rape, violating the laws or customs of war, committed during the armed conflict in the former Yugoslavia between the armed forces of the Government of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the armed forces of the Croatian Community of Herzeg- Bosna.


Refworld | Prosecutor v. Anto Furundzija (Trial Judgement)

Torture in International Humanitarian law The Tribunal noted that the prohibition of torture was clearly provided for by the Furundzja Conventions and its additional protocols. The conflict is considered to consist of several separate conflicts, which were ethnic in nature — the war in Sloveniathe war in Croatiathe war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the war Kosovowhich also involved the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in The Mechanism is a small and temporary body, which plays important role in ensuring that the completion strategy of ICTY does not result in impunity of fugitives and in injustice.

In this regard, the Trial Chamber found that the prohibition against torture has attained the status of jus cogenswhich can be defined as a peremptory norm of international law from which no czse is permitted. He appeared before the ICTY for the first time on 19 December and pleaded not guilty to the two counts with which he was charged. In the former Yugoslavia, the trials of those accused of war crimes have been opened by the courts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

It has been held that international crimes being universally condemned wherever they occur, every State has the right to prosecute and punish the authors of such crimes. For Article czse of the Statute Violations of the laws or customs of war to apply, the existence of an armed conflict had to be established. The judgement furthermore provides a definition of torture under international humanitarian law.


He was sentenced to 10 years in prison on the charges related to torture and to 8 years in prison for those related to outrages upon human dignity. On 21 Julythe Appeals Chamber confirmed the initial sentence. The decision is important as it recognises that rape is a form of torture under international criminal law and lays down a definition of rape, which explicitly includes forced oral penetration.

The trial chamber then laid down the following objective elements of rape para.

It also noted, that in addition to individual criminal liability, State responsibility may ensue as a result of State officials engaging in torture or failing to prevent torture or to punish torturers.

The Tribunal has jurisdiction to prosecute persons responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law — grave breaches of Geneva Conventions, violations of laws and customs of war, genocide and crimes against humanity — allegedly committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia after 1 Januaryno end furundaija was specified.

Ricardo Miguel Cavallo She was subjected to multiple rapes, sexual assaults and physical abuse while in their custody. The Tribunal was called to finish its work by the end ofin order to prepare closure and transfer of cases to the Residual Mechanism.

The trial chamber explicitly stated that it is indisputable that rape and other serious sexual assaults in armed conflict entail the criminal liability of the perpetrators. Mr Furundzija was a local commander of a special unit of military police of the Croatian Defence Csae HVO known as the “Jokers”, in which capacity he, and another soldier, interrogated Witness A. Furthermore, other sexual assaults are expressly or implicitly prohibited in various provisions of the same treaties.

It then went on to state that depending upon the circumstances, under international criminal law, rape may acquire the status of a crime distinct from torture. Witness A, the victim was repeatedly raped in furunezija of him, or when he was just outside the door. Its seat is in Belgrade, Serbia. Outrages upon human dignity, including rape accomplice.

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