He originated the concept of Lebensraum, or “living space,” which relates human groups to the spatial units where they develop. Though Ratzel pointed out the. in the work of Friedrich Ratzel and his formulation of the concept of Lebensraum. The paper argues that the Ratzelian Lebensraum must be viewed as a concept. The concept of Lebensraum—or “living space”—served as a critical component in Renowned German geographer Friedrich Ratzel coined the term in

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Hitler and the Quest for World Dominion. Dan Snow asks why so many soldiers survived the trenches in WW1. Nazi Rule in Occupied Europe.

Gladiators of World War II. It will never see in the subjugated, so called Germanised, Czechs or Poles a national, let alone Folkish, strengthening, but only the racial weakening of our Folk.

Friedrich Ratzel – Wikipedia

There are plenty of Jews with blue eyes and blond hair, and not a few of them have the appearance which strikingly supports the idea of the Germanisation of their kind. His other works included Die Erde und das Leben: Even after the end of the war, German irregular troops, the so-called Free Corps, continued to operate in the Baltic states in a guerrilla war against the Bolsheviks, fought with exceptional brutality on both sides.

German History in Documents and Images. Internet URLs are the best. With the Polish decrees 8 Marchthe Nazis ensured that the racial inferiority of the Poles was legally recognized in the German Reich, and regulated the working and living conditions of Polish laborers Zivilarbeiter.

Indigenous persons considered by the Nazis as partly Polonized mainly Silesians and Kashubians ; refusal to join this list often led to deportation to a concentration camp. United States, country in North America, a federal republic of 50 states.

Ratzel, a scholar of versatile academic interest, was a staunch German. Ratzel influenced numerous scholars in the area of friedricn. Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed.


Friedrich Ratzel |

When the Germans invaded the Soviet Union infurther volunteers from France, Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Czechoslovakia, and the Croatia signed up to fight for the Nazi cause. Harvard University Press, pp. Friedrich Ratzel August 30, friedricb August 9, was a German geographer and ethnographernotable for first using the term Lebensraum “living space” in the sense that the National Socialists later would. New York,p. The third work, his three-volume Lebensraim of Mankind —outdated as it is, still merits respect as a milestone in the history of ethnography.

There was also a belief in the frkedrich of agrarian society and, specifically, of the peasantry. This self-centered viewpoint provided justification for the expansion frieerich Germany and the subsequent suffering those in other nations, as well as support for social Darwinist rationalization for imperialist and racist policies generally.

Concerning the geographic extent of the Greater Germanic ReichAdolf Hitler rejected the Ural Mountains as an adequate, eastern border for Germany, that such mid-sized mountains would not make do as the boundary between the “European and Asiatic worlds”; that only a living wall of racially pure Aryans would make do as a border; and that permanent war in the East would “preserve the vitality of the race”:.

Help us improve this article! University of Chicago Press, pp.


Despite each slogan political and racial being contradicted by the reality of such demographic facts, the nationalists’ demands for Lebensraum proved to be ideologically valid politics in Weimar Germany. Ratzel produced the foundations of human geography in his two-volume Anthropogeographie in and About the author Jeremy Noakes is professor of history at the University of Exeter. The German geographer Friedrich Ratzel was the author of several books on ethnology and human and political geography in which he described his observations during extensive travels in Europe and the Americas.

In Marchin effort to reform and modernise the Russian Empire — into a soviet republicthe Bolshevik government agreed to the strategically onerous, territorial cessions stipulated in the Treaty of Brest-Litovskand Russia yielded to Germany much of the arable land of European Russiathe Baltic governoratesBelarusUkraineand the Caucasus region. Thus, Hitler’s long-range aim, fixed in the s, of erecting a German Eastern Imperium on the ruins of the Soviet Union was not simply a vision emanating from an abstract wish.


Friedrich attended high school in Karlsruhe for six years before being apprenticed at age 15 to an apothecary. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.

Philosophy, rather than biologycame to dominate his later thought. In Mein KampfHitler dedicated a full chapter titled “Eastern Orientation or Eastern Policy”, outlining the need for the new ‘living space’ for Germany.

His early concept of lebensraum was not political or economic but spiritual and racial nationalist expansion. Cambridge, USA, pp.

Increase [of] our peasant population is the only effective defense against the influx of the Slav working-class masses from the East. Friedrich Ratzel August 30, — August 9, was a German geographer and ethnographernotable for coining the term Lebensraum —”living space.

Find out more about page archiving. Edited by Hans Helmolt, with a bibliography by Viktor Hantzsch. Besides the 48 conterminous…. It used to be thought that these were the plans of a few crack-pot theorisers or of extremist organisations. Education in Nazi Germany. Image and Reality of the Israel—Palestine Conflict. Ratzel continued his work at Leipzig until his sudden death on August 9,while on holiday with his wife and daughters in Ammerland, Germany.

This experience stimulated his interest in human geography and influenced his later work. Just like a biological organism grows and develops, it is not natural for states to be static. He believed that no visible differences between peoples could be bridged by the use of a common language.

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