COMPRENDER LA GLOBALIZACION GUILLERMO DE LA DEHESA PDF

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However, these changes had already begun as early as the eleventh century, with the slow economic rise of western Europe over the rest of the world. While in the first, the gains from trade were directed mainly towards investment in education and growth in output per capita, in the second ones, a significant portion of their gains from trade was channeled towards population growth.

Given time, this translates into higher wages and standards of living for all. Obviously, the better and faster these technology transfer systems df — be it through imports under transfer and training contracts or through direct investment in the country — the sooner the countries that do not produce such technology can comrender to enjoy its benefits and avoid being left behind. In other words, many countries have two forms of natural disadvantages that cause them to lag behind and suffer poverty and inequality with respect to others.

The disparities in per capita GDP growth have broadened, especially following the diffusion of the first Industrial Revolution and the arrival of modern capitalism. Technological progress has facilitated globalization. In fact, these companies are even willing to pay large comprendfr of money for a license without requiring that they be granted a monopoly.

Only a technological leader like the US could try this, and even then it would find it difficult because many of its technological developments have come also from the minds and hands of European and Asian scientists and technologists.

Because the cost of these products is so high, AIDS patients in Africa must either wait until the patents expire — so they can try to get the related generic medicine cheaper — or die. Only insofar as geography can affect the quality of the institutions would it have any effect at all. But there has so far been dismayingly little progress in that regard.

Books by Guillermo De La Dehesa (Author of Quo Vadis Europa?)

By the end of1 billion people were on the internet while the number of mobile phone users reached 1. However, those who do not use it, either because they lack the training or know-how or because 40 Technical Progress, Poverty, Inequality their country does not have a big enough market to be able to implement such technologies, have a lower productivity, lose their jobs because the technologies are implemented in other countries, which makes them more competitive, or they have to resort to lowerpaying jobs.

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This acceleration in progress was further fueled by subsequent technological revolutions marked by such inventions as electricity, the telephone, the internal combustion engine, the automobile, the airplane, the television, the computer and, lastly, the Internet.

Moreover, GM is much more precise than cross-breeding or grafting. If all the developed countries do not hurry up and eliminate the trade barriers with the developing countries, if the latter are left without sufficient flows of capital and do not receive more inflows from foreign investment, and if the poorest countries and peoples of the world, who are being left glkbalizacion some of them because of their own poor quality domestic policies and institutions from international trade, investment, and technology, guillsrmo not receive more aid, world income inequality among countries may shoot up producing massive waves of emigration until the mid-twenty-first century from these neglected poor countries to the rich countries, potentially causing widespread violence, terrorism, and even war.

Books by Guillermo De La Dehesa

Not only is the volume of investment what counts but also its quality and efficiency. Unfortunately, however, in the recent study conducted by the International Telecommunications Union, covering countries, only 38 countries had competitive fixed-line telephone markets, 16 had duopolies and the other still had monopolies.

In the previous technological wave, which has the greatest dissemination — fixed telephone deheesa television — the differences between the poorer and richer groups of countries is lower than in the more recent waves.

There are even countries where the majority of the population still does not have running water. How is the field to be made level then? He rightly emphasizes first dehea need to open up to trade. The second is the proliferation of parasites as a result of the broad animal comprneder. Because of the high temperatures, surface water and water in the plants evaporates very quickly and is not very efficient.

Technological progress, which implies that a unit of labor can guillerrmo produce 42 Technical Progress, Poverty, Inequality more output, makes a unit of labor more valuable. Most of the growing gap between the two groups of countries was due, afterto the diffusion of the Industrial Revolution in Europe and its substantial impact on productivity and prices.

In the year the infant mortality rate was the same as at the beginning of the Christian era: Since the end of the previous wave of globalization, inFDI flows to developing countries have been falling as a percentage of total flows, although they have stopped their downward trend in the last few years thanks to the flows received by the large developing countries which have opened up to international trade and FDI.

Japan experienced the fastest growth in its history until the old conglomerates began to appear again with the help of the public administration. Resource abundance per se need not do any harm: This shows that there is not a linear relationship between per capita income and technological dissemination; in technologies that are more widely disseminated because they have been around longer the technological differences are bigger than they should be based on the differences in per capita income between the countries that invented them, i.

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Of the 30 countries and territories in the world considered by the World Bank as highincome countries, only two very small ones accounting for 1 percent of the combined population of the 30 — Hong Kong and Singapore — are located in the tropics.

As regards technology diffusion, a paper by Comin, Hobijn, and Rovitohas tried to assemble new data on the diffusion of about technologies in over countries over the last years called CHAT Cross-country Historical Adoption of Technology capturing both the extensive and intensive margins of the diffusion and it has also tried to find some common technology adoption patterns both across countries and over time.

In addition to technological progress, there are other factors that produce inequality between countries. He spent twenty years in various Spanish governmental positions from the late s through the late s.

An increase in the natural capital share of 20 percentage points goes along with a decrease in the investment ratio of 4 percentage points and a decrease of economic growth of 1 percentage point Gylfason, The most powerful revolution has been the biotech revolution, especially genetic modification GM.

Depending on the degree of globalization at any given time, such discoveries take more or less time to be disseminated to other countries through commerce, foreign investment and emigration; accordingly, the absence of globalization can cause the inequality between countries to persist for much longer periods of time.

In developing countries it increased from 0. A strong, antimonopolistic policy was later introduced, helping it to recover. Under these policies, countries impose stricter or looser controls on adopting and developing technologies.

Asia excluding Japan accounted for 30 percent of all users, yet it globaliaacion 60 percent of the world population. Globalizxcion, European colonization has had different results depending on the climate. Japan had 8 percent of its users and 2. One of the reasons technological development causes inequality is because each new discovery gives the countries or people that invent comprnder, develop it, or are first to apply it a huge initial advantage over the rest of the countries and people of the world.

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